Home > Missiles > Tunguska

Tunguska

Short-range air defense gun/missile system

Tunguska air defense gun/missile system

The Tunguska was designed to counter the threat posed by Western attack helicopters and ground attack aircraft

 
 
Country of origin Soviet Union
Entered service 1982
Crew 4 men
Dimensions and weight
Weight 34.8 t
Length 7.93 m
Width 3.24 m
Height (in travelling order) 3.36 m
Height (in combat order) 4.02 m
Gun armament
Guns 4 x 30 mm
Projectile weight 0.39 kg
Maximum slant range 3 km
Maximum firing range 4 km
Rate of fire 5 000 rpm
Elevation range - 9 to + 85 degrees
Traverse range 360 degrees
Ammunition load 1 904 rounds
Missile armament
Number of missiles 8 x 9M311
Missile length 2.8 m
Missile diameter 0.12 m
Fin span 0.45 m
Missile weight 42 kg
Warhead weight 9 kg
Warhead type HE-FRAG
Range of fire 8 km
Altitude of fire 3.5 km
Mobility
Engine V-46 diesel
Engine power 780 hp
Maximum road speed 65 km/h
Range 580 km
Maneuverability
Gradient 60%
Side slope 30%
Vertical step 1 m
Trench 2 m
Fording 1 m

 

   The 2S6 Tunguska (Western reporting name SA-19 or Grison) is a Russian low-level air-defense system. It was developed to replace the ZSU-23-4 Shilka self-propelled anti-aircraft gun and 9K31 Strela-1 and Strela-1M2 mobile surface-to-air missile systems. The ZSU-23-4 had no early warning and struggled to counter new ground attack aircraft, such as the US A-10 Thunderbolt II, which was specially designed to be resistant against its 23 mm rounds. Soviet analysis indicated, that 30 mm ammunition would be much more lethal. By the early 1970s the Strela-1 was also a dated system with questionable performance. Development of the Tunguska (also referred as the 2K22) began in mid 70s and first prototypes were completed in 1980. Some sources report that its design was heavily influenced by a German Gepard self-propelled anti-aircraft gun. The Tunguska was adopted by the Soviet Army in 1982 and deliveries commenced during the same year. This air defense system was used by motorized and mechanized infantry formations. Its main role was to counter the threat posed by Western low-flying attack helicopters and ground attack aircraft. The Tunguska and its variants are currently in service with Russia, Belarus, India, Morocco (12), Syria, Ukraine and Yemen. By 2012 Russia reportedly had more than 250 of these systems, so it is not a very numerous weapon of the Russia's military.

   The 2S6 designation denotes that Russians consider this system as a self-propelled anti-aircraft gun with auxiliary missile armament. The Tunguska is armed with twin 30 mm guns and four 9M331 short-range surface-to-air missile on each side. This makes a total of four 30 mm guns and eight missiles. The 30 mm rapid-firing guns are essentially modified aircraft cannons. Combined rate of fire for all four 30 mm guns is 5 000 rounds per minute. These guns use High Explosive Tracer (HE-T) and High Explosive Incendiary (HE-I) rounds. Service life is at least 8 000 rounds for each gun.

   The original Tunguska was fitted with 9M311 missiles. These have a semi-active radar guidance and blast fragmentation warhead. There is a laser proximity fuse which triggers the warhead once the missile is near its. These missiles can engage targets traveling at speeds up to 500 m/s. Maximum altitude is only 3.5 km, while maximum range is 8 km. The 9M311 missiles are effective against low-flying aircraft and helicopters. These have a hit probability of 65%, while hit probability with guns is 80%. Similar 9M311K missiles are used by Kashtan naval air defense system. The 9M311-1 is a downgraded export version of the missile. The Tunguska is able to fire its guns on the move, however it must be stationary to fire missiles.

   The Tunguska typically launches its missiles when the target is at longer ranges, and uses guns at shorter ranges.

   Radar detection range of the original Tunguska is 17-18 km and tracking range is 11-16 km. Since its introduction no less than four different variants of search radars were used. Guidance is performed by a gunner who uses optical sight. Reaction time of the system is 10 seconds.

   Armor of the Tunguska protects the crew against small arms fire and artillery shell splinters. Though it will not withstand heavy machine gun fire. Vehicle is fitted with automatic fire suppression and NBC protection systems.

   The Tunguska has a crew of four, including commander, gunner, operator and driver.

   This air defense system is powered by a version of the V-46 diesel. It is a multi-fuel engine, developing 780 hp. Vehicle has a hydropneumatic suspension with adjustable ground clearance. It is fitted with auxiliary gas turbine power unit, which powers all systems when the main engine is shut down.

   Battery of Tunguskas includes six 2S6 combat vehicles, six reloading vehicles, and five various technical assistance vehicles, including repair and maintenance vehicles, mobile workshop and missile test vehicles. A battery of Tunguskas can automatically receive fire control information from Ranzhir mobile command center.

 

Variants

 

   2S6M Tunguska-M is an improved variant, adopted in 1990. It is based on GM-352M special tracked chassis. It seems that this system uses improved 9M311M missiles.

   2S6M1 Tunguska-M1 if a further improved variant with improved fire control system. It is based on a GM-5975 special tracked chassis and uses new 9M311-M1 missiles. These have a range of 10 km. These missiles have improved optical tracking and accuracy. Laser proximity fuse was replaced by a radio proximity fuse. The new missiles can engage small targets, such as cruise missiles. The Tunguska-M1 is much more effective than the previous Tunguska-M. All previous Tunguskas can be upgraded to this standard. The 2S6M1 entered service with the Russian Army in 2003. A total of 21 Tunguska-M1 systems were delivered in 2012-2017.

   Upgraded variant of the Tunguska, which uses new 57E6 missiles. These have a range of up to 18 km. This upgraded air defense system also has new radars. Detection range increased to 38 km and tracking range to 30 km.

   Pantsyr is a further development of Tunguska, based on an 8x8 cross-country truck. It is a short-range air defense system, that was designed to protect strategic military and civil point targets. It uses the same four 30 mm guns, but new and more capable missiles. These have a range of up to 20 km. The Pantsyr was first publicly revealed in 1995 but was officially adopted only in 2007-2008. First systems were delivered in 2010.

   There are proposed tracked variants of the Pantsyr, based on a similar special wheeled chassis as the Tunguska. These systems strongly resemble the Tunguska, but are fitted with bigger missiles. Some of them carry more missiles.

 

 

Tunguska air defense gun/missile system

Expand image

Tunguska air defense gun/missile system

Expand image

Tunguska air defense gun/missile system

Expand image

Tunguska air defense gun/missile system

Expand image

Tunguska air defense gun/missile system

Expand image

Tunguska air defense gun/missile system

Expand image

Tunguska air defense gun/missile system

Expand image

Tunguska air defense system with associated reloading vehicle

Expand image

Tunguska air defense system with associated reloading vehicle

Expand image

 

Personal appeal from Andrius Genys
Please Read

Top 10 Fighter Aircraft
Top 10 Fighter Aircraft

Top 10 Main Battle Tanks
Top 10 Main Battle Tanks

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Home  Home     Aircraft     Helicopters     Tanks     Armored Vehicles     Artillery     Trucks     Engineering Vehicles     Missiles     Naval Forces     Firearms     |     Contact Us
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ARG 2006 - 2021
www.Military-Today.com Tunguska