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Tochka (SS-21 Scarab)

Short-range ballistic missile

Tochka (SS-21 Scarab)

The Tochka short-range ballistic missile can carry conventional, chemical or nuclear warheads

 
 
Country of origin Soviet Union
Entered service 1976
Crew 3 men
Dimensions and weight
Weight 18.15 t
Length ~ 9.48 m
Width ~ 2.78 m
Height ~ 2.35 m
Missile
Missile length 6.4 m
Missile diameter 0.65 m
Missile weight 2 000 kg
Warhead weight 480 kg
Warhead type conventional, chemical, nuclear
Range of fire 70 km
CEP 160 m
Mobility
Engine 5D20B-300 diesel
Engine power 300 hp
Maximum road speed 60 km/h
Amphibious speed on water 8 km/h
Range 650 km
Maneuverability
Gradient 60%
Side slope 40%
Vertical step ~ 0.5 m
Trench ~ 1.2 m
Fording Amphibious

 

   The Tochka short-range ballistic missile system (Western reporting name SS-21 or Scarab) was developed to replace the Luna-M (FROG-7B) battlefield rocket. Its development began in 1968. Production commenced in 1973 however officially this missile system entered service with the Soviet Army only in 1976. It was exported to a number of Warsaw Pact countries and other Soviet allies.

   The main targets for this missile are airfields, command posts, support facilities, radars and air defense batteries, bridges and concentrations or troops and armored vehicles.

   The Tochka can carry conventional, nuclear or chemical warheads. Maximum range of fire is 70 km. It has a CEP of 160 m. A standard missile is 6.4 m long and weights 2 000 kg. Warhead weights about 480 kg, depending on the type.

   Ukraine used a number of its Tochka ballistic missiles with high explosive warheads against Russian-backed separatists in Donbass region. These missiles were used against military bases and industrial installations and proved to be accurate and extremely effective. In some cases Russian air defense systems could not intercept these ballistic missiles.

   This missile has an inertial guidance system. It takes less than 20 minutes to launch the missile from traveling. Missile is erected to near vertical position, prior to launch. After launch the TEL vehicle can leave its position within 1.5 minutes.

   Missile is transported and launched by a BAZ-5921 6x6 mobile launcher vehicle. Vehicle is fitted with an NBC protection system and is fully amphibious. On water it is propelled by two waterjets. However some sources claim that cross-country mobility of this vehicle is limited.

   In travelling position missile is hidden inside the TEL vehicle, where it is protected from direct hits, environment and NBC threats. While travelling this missile is hard to intercept due to its speed and mobility. Vehicle is also capable of rapid redeployment.

   The TEL vehicle is supported by a reloading vehicle, based on a similar BAZ-5922 6x6 amphibious wheeled chassis. It carries two reload missiles and is fitted with a crane. The TEL vehicle is reloaded within 20 minutes.

   The Tochka units are usually managed in brigade structure. There are 18 launcher vehicles in the brigade.

 

Variants

 

   Tochka-U (SS-21 Scarab-B), improved variant of the Tochka with a maximum range of 120 km. and improved CEP. It entered service in 1989.

   SS-21 Scarab-C. Its Russian designation is unknown. This missile system was developed in the 1990s. Range was increased to 185 km and CEP was further improved.

   Oka (SS-23 Spider), essentially a longer version of the Tochka, with a maximum range of 480 km. The SS-23 Spider was eliminated due to the 1987 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (or INF treaty) during the late 1980s.

   KN-02, North Korean reversed-engineered and upgraded version of the Scarab-A, with a longer range and improved CEP.

 

 

Tochka (SS-21 Scarab)

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Tochka (SS-21 Scarab)

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Tochka (SS-21 Scarab)

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Tochka (SS-21 Scarab)

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Tochka (SS-21 Scarab)

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Tochka (SS-21 Scarab)

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