Country of origin
Road-mobile and silo-based
Missile launch weight
17 000 kg
700 ~ 1 000 kg
High explosive, cluster, and possibly nuclear
Range of fire
1 950 km
~ 250 m
Maximum road speed
~ 60 km/h
~ 1 000 km/h
(sometimes referred as the Ghadr) is the
most advanced Iranian liquid-propellant medium range ballistic
missile which has more than 2 000 km range, about 100 m CEP. It carries a single 700-1 000 kg warhead. First operational test
of this ballistic missile was
made in 2006. It was publicly shown in September 2007. Production
began in 2008.
In the early 1990s, Iran had Shahab 1 and Shahab 2 missiles
which had a range of 350 to 500 km. It was enough to hit the targets
around the Iranian borders, but it was not enough to reach remote
threats, especially targets in Israel. So Iran started planning to
build a new missile with a range of more than 1 000 km range.
At the same time North Korea had started building a new
missile with a longer range and bigger size than other missiles, but
they had some technical and financial problems to reach their goal.
Iran cooperated with the North Korea to build its first MRBM
and buy the needed technologies from that country. For the new
missile, the North Korea had chosen a
platform, fitted with new engine and guidance systems.
Korea fielded this missile in 1993. It is called the
No Dong. Then Iran obtained some No
Dongs (about 10 units) and missile parts to build and test their own
missile which they called Shahab 3.
Tests of the Shahab 3 started in 1998. Some other missiles
were built between 1998-2001 and tested. Most of the test were
successful. So Iran began production of the Shahabs.
m long, have a diameter of 1.38 m, 1 000 kg warhead payload, range
of 1 300 km, and a CEP of 1 000 m. Fuel was made of 27% N2O4 and 73% HNO3 with
nitrogen tetroxide and nitric acid.
At the same
time Iran obtained Chinese missile
technology which included a large pack of cruise, ballistic and
surface-to-air missiles with associated systems. They started to
own Shahab missiles with new generation systems.
First the Shahabs were improved to new versions by fitting new guidance
systems to maximize the missiles abilities, especially accuracy.
CEP of the upgraded missiles thanks to the new guidance with GPS
and/or GLONASS navigation systems. Also new versions of the Shahab
missiles were faster and were fitted with a separating re-entry
Length and diameter of the missiles remained the same, but the speed
and accuracy improved. The CEP minimized to 250 m and speed
increased to up to
In 2004 Iran started its own programs to further improve missile
range and capabilities. As a result the Qadr missile family was
The Qadr is based on the Shahab 3. Both of them were designed by
Iranian missile facilities. Engine of the Qadr is an upgraded
version of the Shahab 3 engine, that has more thrust and consumes
less fuel. Guidance systems were also updated. All of these factors increased the flight altitude,
accuracy and range of the missile.
First the new missile
was named the Qadr 1. All
of Qadr class missiles had a Shahab class shapes, four fins
at the end of the missile and a new conical shape top with re-entry
vehicle, which is upgraded
in new versions, and it is a little (about 50 cm) longer.
The length is
about 15.86 m, diameter is 1.25 m, weight 17 000 kg. Versions of the Qadr
high explosive and cluster warheads and its believed that are capable of
carrying nuclear warheads.
First operational test of the Qadr was preformed in February 2008.
sources claimed that the first test of this medium range ballistic
missile was made during a military exercise
in 2006. Production of the first version commenced in 2008 and
other versions followed in 2014.
Now the Qadr missiles replaced in production lines the Shahabs.
All of Qadr class missiles
use the same launch platform. It is based on a semitrailer and is
towed by a Mercedes Benz
truck. Mobile TEL platforms are harder to detect and hit. The launch vehicle has
an unrefueled range of about 500 km and a road speed of 60 km/h.
Missile bases include underground and silo base launch sites. Also old HQ2
surface-to-air missile sites had been converted to surface launch sites, for Qadr class
based on Shahab 3 and has new re-entry vehicle, engine, fuel and
guidance systems with 1 660 km (later more than 1 940 km) range,
more than 200 km maximum flight altitude, about 100 m CEP and speed
of around Mach 10.
Qadr H: improved version of Qadr F with 2 000 km (now 2 000+
km) range and new multiple re-entry vehicle. This missile flies in higher
altitudes (apogee about 500 km) and has a speed of around Mach 14.
Qadr S: improved version with a cluster
improved version of Qadr missile with new 3rd generation re-entry
vehicle. It can be guided and controlled
until hitting the target, which maximized the missile accuracy. When
tested in October 2015 this missile hit just a little far from the
target. This test showed high accuracy of re-entry vehicle which can
be around 50 meters. Other versions of the Quadr can be upgraded to
Article by EHSAN OSTADRAHIMI
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