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Pampero

Multiple launch rocket system

Pampero artillery rocket system

The Pampero is a lightweight artillery rocket system, that could be mounted on light trucks

 
 
Country of origin Argentina
Entered service Mid 1980s
Crew 3 men
Dimensions and weight
Weight 6.11 t
Length 5.22 m
Width 2.12 m
Height 2.38 m
Armament
Caliber 105 mm
Number of tubes 16
Rocket weight 30 kg
Warhead weight 10.5 kg
Firing range 10.2 km
Full salvo duration 7 s
Reloading time 10 minutes
Mobility
Engine Mercedes-Benz diesel
Engine power 110 hp
Maximum road speed 79 km/h
Range 300 km
Maneuverability
Gradient 66%
Side slope 42%
Vertical step 0.55 m
Trench ~ 0.5 m
Fording 0.8 m

 

   Produced by the DGFM Fabrica Militar Fray Luis Beltran in Rosario, Argentina, the Pampero is a self-propelled multiple launch rocket system. The system is referred by the Argentinian military as the Sistema Lanzacohetes de Artillería Múltiple (SLAM), meaning "Multiple Rocket Launcher System". Little has been published concerning the origins of the Pampero. Development began in 1980 and was completed in 1983, too late for the system to participate in the Falklands War. The Pampero was adopted by the Argentinean armed forces in the mid-1980s. There is a substantial disagreement between various sources on the number of Pamperos produced. According to some sources only 5 units were constructed (or 4 plus one prototype). Yet other sources claim that 40 units have been produced. Argentina is the only nation to operate this system. The Pampero is still regularly displayed in parades and exhibitions, and is still seen firing rockets during exercises. Anyway, production of the Pampero has ceased decades ago. It is extremely unlikely that new Pampero launchers would be produced. Efforts now being concentrated on developing and marketing the new CP-30 system.

   The Pampero launcher is mounted atop a Mercedes-Benz Unimog 416 1 500 kg capacity flatbed truck, with a relatively small box-shaped launcher. Hydraulic jacks are fitted to the fenders to brace the chassis while firing. The launcher cannot fire accurately or safely unless the jacks are lowered.

   The Pampero could also be mounted atop any similar or larger flatbed trucks, provided the addition of deployable jacks or spades, and has also been reportedly demonstrated atop a 4-wheeled towed trailer.

   The Unimog 416 chassis allows for outstanding mobility, including a road speed of 79 km/h, a range of up to 300 km, and an exceptional axle clearance for a truck in its size class. These allow the Pampero to move rapidly over roads, or through terrain normally impassable to vehicles of its type, which allows it to be moved, emplaced, and displaced very quickly - important considerations for staying ahead of enemy counter-battery fire. Its only significant vices in mobility are high ground pressure, and a lack of amphibious capability.

   The launcher is composed primarily of aluminum, keeping its weight and the vehicle's topweight to a minimum. There are a total of 16 launch tubes, in two slightly-spaced clusters of 8. It can be traversed up to 90 degrees to either side or elevated up to 52 degrees, but cannot be depressed below 0 degrees. Traversal, elevation, and are electric, and are controlled from the vehicle's cab. There are also handwheels for traversal and elevation, which can be used as an emergency backup, or to fine-tune the launcher's fire solution. Sights for both direct and indirect fire are fitted.

   The rockets must be reloaded manually. A procedure that reportedly requires 10 minutes to complete.

   A full salvo of all 16 rockets can be achieved in only 7 seconds. The salvo saturates a large area, with 68% of all rounds fired landing within a 300x200 m area. It is also possible to fire single rounds, or a partial salvo, as required.

   Four types of rockets have been fielded for the Pampero. These include High Explosive (HE), High Explosive Incendiary (HE-I), High Explosive Fragmentation (HE-FRAG) and a practice rockets. The HE, HE-I, and HE-FRAG rockets both contain a 26 kg warhead, though the terminal effects of their warheads apparently haven't been published. Their firepower is probably be quite substantial however, as this warhead is actually heavier than that of any of the 122 mm rockets for the BM-21 Grad. The "war shot" rounds can both be primed for impact detonation, or an airburst via a proximity fuse. The practice rockets have a functional motor, but do not have live warheads.

   All four rockets are propelled by a solid fuel rocket motor, utilizing PHE-2 fuel. The rockets are drag-stabilized via a set of three conformal fins, which spring-out into position as the rockets leave the tube. All of these rockets can also be fired from a Yaguareté aerial rocket pod.

   The unit cost of the Pampero has not been published, and it is no longer marketed either.

 

Variants

 

   Self-propelled version: Mounted atop a 4x4 light truck, as described above. The Argentine Army used the Mercedes-Benz Unimog 416 truck for their Pamperos.

   Towed version: Unlike most artillery rocket systems, the Pampero was also reportedly offered in a towed version, mounted atop a 4-wheeled trailer.

   Larger launcher: A larger launcher for the Pampero has been developed, with 54 launch tubes. However, it required a larger vehicle to carry it as well.

   Yaguareté: The Pampero is also offered as a heavy aerial rocket system, dubbed the Yaguareté, using a 4-tube or 6-tube launcher. These have been demonstrated on Argentine UH-1 Iroquois helicopters, though its unclear if the Pampero ever saw operational service in this capacity.

 

Similar weapons

 

   SLAM CP-30: This weapon was developed as the successor to the Pampero. It was developed in the 2000s. This system employs a more powerful 127 mm rocket. The CP-30 is often assumed to have been developed during the same time period, or that it is part of the same family of artillery rockets as the Pampero, or even that they are one and the same. All of these common assumptions are false. The Pampero employs a 105 mm rocket, it entered service in the 1980s, and only requires a 4x4 truck to carry, while the CP-30 employs a more powerful 127 mm rocket, was developed in the 2000s, and requires at least a 6x4 ot 6x6 truck chassis to carry. The Argentinean military uses an IVECO Trakker 6x4 truck to carry this system though there is also a proposed towed version of the CP-30, based on a 4-wheeled trailer.

   Rayo: More or less the Chilean counterpart of the Pampero, the Rayo's launcher is also mounted atop a standard flatbed truck, but fires a rocket with a more typical 122 mm bore.

   Type 63: This is actually a towed 107 mm artillery rocket system system, but the launcher has been fitted to the flatbeds of light trucks and even pickups by various militant groups. The results are often less than stellar; these vehicles lack jacks, spades, or any other bracing mechanisms. Backblast from the launcher has been seen in some internet videos to blow-out the back windows and incinerate the interior of the cab.

   Type 81: This Chinese artillery rocket system consists of a small Nanjing NJ-230 light truck with 4x4 configuration, carrying a Type 63 launcher on its flatbed. And unlike the aforementioned technicals with Type 63s, the launcher was carefully integrated into the truck.

   Unidentified North Korean artillery rocket system: Similar to the Type 81, but with the 24-tube Type 1975 107 mm rocket launcher mounted on an M1973 (also known as VTT-323) tracked armored personnel carrier chassis. The Type 75 launcher was obviously developed from the Chinese Type 63. There is also a version mounted on a M1992 wheeled 4x4 armored personnel carrier chassis.

   LRSVM Morava: Not unlike the much larger ASTROS II, this Serbian multiple launch rocket system fires several different bores. However, it uses a smaller FAP 1118 4x4 truck, and only one version (with 107 mm tubes) uses a similar rocket to that of the Pampero.

 

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Pampero artillery rocket system

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Pampero artillery rocket system

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Pampero artillery rocket system

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Pampero artillery rocket system

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Pampero artillery rocket system

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Pampero artillery rocket system

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Pampero artillery rocket system

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Pampero artillery rocket system

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