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PT-91 Twardy

Main battle tank

PT-91 Twardy MBT

A small number of PT-91 Twardy main battle tanks is in service with Polish army



Entered service 1990s
Crew 3 men
Dimensions and weight
Weight 45.3 t
Length (gun forward) 9.53 m
Hull length 6.86 m
Width 3.59 m
Height 2.19 m
Armament
Main gun 125-mm smoothbore
Machine guns 1 x 7.62-mm, 1 x 12.7-mm
Elevation range - 6 to + 13 degrees
Traverse range 360 degrees
Ammunition load
Main gun 42 rounds
Machine guns 2 000 x 7.62, 300 x 12.7
Mobility
Engine S-12U diesel engine
Engine power 850 hp
Maximum road speed 60 km/h
Range 480 km
Maneuverability
Gradient 60%
Side slope 50%
Vertical step 0.85 m
Trench 2.8 m
Fording 1.4 m
Fording (with preparation) 5 m

 

   The PT-91 Twardy (hard) is an improved variant of the Soviet T-72 main battle tank. The PT-91 was developed in Poland in the early 1990s. Currently Polish Army operates a total of 230 PT-91 Twardy MBTs, alongside 590 T-72M1 tanks.

   Twardy's protection is enhanced by utilizing indigenously developed ERAWA explosive reactive armor blocks. There is a total of 394 ERAWA blocks covering front of the hull and the turret. These blocks are placed virtually without gaps to each other. It is worth mentioning that explosive reactive armor blocks on the Soviet of the Cold War era usually have 15 mm gaps or even more, thus reducing overall protection. Tests shown that ERAWA blocks improve tank's protection by 30-70% depending on the ammunition type used. However armor of the PT-91 can not withstand modern Western 120-mm tank gun ammunition fired from 2 000 m range.

   The PT-91 Twardy is armed with a 125-mm main gun, which is similar to that, used on the T-72. The gun is fitted with an autoloader. The PT-91 Twardy has new gun stabilization system and new fire control system. Other systems and sights have also been improved.

   Secondary armament consists of coaxial 7.62-mm machine gun and roof mounted 12.7-mm machine gun.

   Vehicle has a crew of three, including commander, gunner and driver.

   The PT-91 has more powerful engine, comparing with the T-72. It is fitted with the S-12U diesel engine, developing 850 horsepower. There was also developed a S-1000 turbocharged diesel engine, developing 1 000 horsepower.

 

Variants

 

   PT-91A main battle tank, fitted with the S-1000 engine, developing 1 000 hp;

   PT-91A1 command tank;

   PT-91M Pendekar export version supplied to Malaysia. This MBT is fitted with improved 125-mm gun, S-1000 engine, new hydropneumatic transmission, French fire control system, new communication system and some other changes;

   PT-94 Goryl, further development of the PT-91 Twardy MBT. This programme was cancelled due to funding problems;

   Loara self-propelled anti-aircraft gun;

   WZT-3M armored recovery vehicle;

   WZT-4 armored recovery vehicle for Malaysian Army, based on the PT-91M tank,

   MID armored engineering vehicle;

   PMC-90 armored bridgelayer.

 

Video of the PT-91 Twardy main battle tank

 

PT-91 Twardy MBT

PT-91 Twardy MBT

PT-91 Twardy MBT

PT-91 Twardy MBT

PT-91 Twardy MBT

PT-91 Twardy MBT

PT-91 Twardy MBT

PT-91 Twardy MBT

 
PT-91 Twardy MBT

PT-91 Twardy MBT

PT-91 Twardy MBT

PT-91 Twardy MBT

PT-91 Twardy MBT

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