A small number of
PT-91 Twardy main battle tanks is in service with Polish army
Dimensions and weight
Length (gun forward)
1 x 7.62-mm, 1 x 12.7-mm
- 6 to + 13 degrees
2 000 x 7.62, 300 x 12.7
S-12U diesel engine
Maximum road speed
Fording (with preparation)
Twardy (hard) is an improved variant of the Soviet
main battle tank. The PT-91 was developed in Poland in the early
1990s. Production of the PT-91 Twardy tanks foe the Polish Army were
completed in 2002. A total of 230 tanks were delivered. Currently
Polish Army also operates 590 older T-72M1 tanks and a number of
Leopard 2A5 tanks.
Germany donated to Poland a number of Leopard 2A4 tanks from the
German Army stocks. Some former units equipped with Twardy, are now
equipped with the Leopard 2A4 and 2A5 tanks. In turn units formerly
equipped with the T-72M1 tanks are now equipped with the Twardy.
protection is enhanced by utilizing indigenously developed ERAWA
explosive reactive armor blocks. There is a total of 394 ERAWA
blocks covering front of the hull and the turret. These blocks are
placed virtually without gaps to each other. It is worth mentioning
that explosive reactive armor blocks on the Soviet of the Cold War
era usually have 15 mm gaps or even more, thus reducing overall
protection. Tests shown that ERAWA blocks improve tank's protection
by 30-70% depending on the ammunition type used. However armor of
the PT-91 can not withstand modern Western 120-mm tank gun
ammunition fired from 2 000 m range.
Twardy is armed with a 125-mm main gun, which is similar to that,
used on the T-72. The gun is fitted with an autoloader. The
PT-91 Twardy has new gun stabilization system and new fire control
system. Other systems and sights have also been improved.
armament consists of coaxial 7.62-mm machine gun and roof mounted
12.7-mm machine gun.
a crew of three, including commander, gunner and driver.
has more powerful engine, comparing with the T-72. It is fitted with
the S-12U diesel engine, developing 850 horsepower. There was also
developed a S-1000 turbocharged diesel engine, developing 1 000
battle tank, fitted with the S-1000 engine, developing 1 000 hp;
Pendekar export version supplied to Malaysia. This MBT is fitted
with improved 125-mm gun, S-1000 engine, new hydropneumatic
transmission, French fire control system, new communication system
and some other changes;
further development of the PT-91 Twardy MBT. This programme was
cancelled due to funding problems;
155-mm self-propelled howitzer. A small number of these artillery
systems are in service with the Polish Army;