Home > Missiles > Type 81

Type 81

Short-range air defense missile system

Type 81 air defense missile system

The Type 81 was the first Japanese air defense missile system that reached series production

 
 
  SAM-1A SAM-1C
Country of origin Japan
Entered service 1981 1995
Crew 2 ~ 3 3
Dimensions and weight
Weight ~ 10 t ~ 10 t
Length ~ 7 m ~ 7.5 m
Width 2.41 m 2.49 m
Height ~ 3.5 m ~ 3.5 m
Missile
Missile length ~ 2.7 m ~ 2.71 m (IR-guided missile) / ~ 2.85 m (radar-guided missile)
Missile diameter ~ 0.16 m ~ 0.16 m
Fin span ? ?
Missile weight ~ 100 kg ~ 105 kg
Warhead weight ~ 9 kg ~ 9 kg
Warhead type HE-FRAG HE-FRAG
Range of fire 5-7 km 7~10 km (IR-guided missile) /  ~ 14 km (radar-guided missile)
Altitude of fire 3 km 3 km
Guidance Passive infrared guidance Active radar homing / passive infrared homing
Mobility
Engine Isuzu diesel Isuzu diesel
Engine power 210 hp 286 hp
Maximum road speed ~ 90 km/h ~ 90 km/h
Range ~ 500 km ~ 500 km
Maneuverability
Gradient ~ 60% ~ 60%
Side slope ~ 30% ~ 30%
Vertical step ~ 0.5 m ~ 0.5 m
Trench ~ 1 m ~ 1 m
Fording 0.8 m 0.8 m

 

   The Type 81 is a Japanese short-range air defense missile system. It is also known as the Tan-SAM. Development began in the late 1960s. It is a product of Toshiba. This Japanese air defense system was officially adopted in 1981. Deployment with Japan's Ground Self-Defense Forces (JGSDF) began in 1982. Since 1983 this system was used by Japan's Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF) for defense of airbases. It was the first indigenous air defense missile system to reach production. In service the Type 81 fitted the gap between the US-supplies Hawk air defense system and 35 mm anti-aircraft guns.

   The launcher is based on a chassis of a Type 73 Ougata truck with 6x6 configuration. This vehicle can carry 4 surface-to-air missiles. This system was more mobile than the US-supplied Hawk. The launcher vehicle is equipped with a device which automatically reloads the missiles. Additional missiles in containers can be carried onboard.

   Two launcher vehicles are supported by a radar vehicle with a phased array radar. It is based on a similar Type 73 truck with 6x6 configuration. It can search for targets and track them. It extends the range of the missiles. However if required the launcher vehicles can operate and launch missiles without the help of the radar.

   The SAM-1A was an initial missile used by JGSDF and JASDF. It had a range of 5-7 km and could reach targets at an altitude of 3 km. It uses passive infrared guidance. This missile locks on its target after the launch. The JGSDF retired this missile by 1990.

   SAM-1B version was deployed by Japan's Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) since 1992 until 2006. The JMSDF used this system to protect their bases. By 2020 the SAM-1B missile was still used by the JGSDF.

   SAM-1C is an improved version. It is also known as the Tan-SAM Kai. Development began in 1989. This air defense system uses two types of missiles with different guidance methods. One of the missiles uses passive infrared homing. It has a range of around 7-10 km. The other missile uses active radar homing. It can be identified by a sharp tip. It has a range of around 14 km. There is a proximity fuse which triggers the warhead in case missile misses its target. These missiles use new rocket motors that emit less smoke. This makes the launcher vehicle more survivable. Some changes have been made to the launcher vehicle and radar vehicle. The launcher vehicle is also equipped with a laser rangefinder and FLIR device. It can be integrated into division air defense system. Commands with updated target data can be issued once the target has changed direction. Overall it is a more capable system with a longer range, better resistance to jamming and countermeasures, as well as all-weather capability. This improved air defense system was adopted by the HGSDF in 1995. However only the the JGSDF used it. The JASDF never adopted it as the Type 81 could not engage cruise missiles. This lack of capability against cruise missiles eventually led to development of a modernized air defense system, which was adopted in 2011 as the Type 11.

   Newer systems were mounted on a modernized Type 73 truck.

 

Variants

 

   Type 11 is a modernized version of the Type 81. It is also known as Tan-SAM Kai II (revision II). It uses generally similar missiles but in containerized form. This improved maintainability and handling of the missiles. The missile also has improved performance and can now engage small air-to-ground missiles and cruise missiles. This system was adopted by the Japanese military in 2011. The Japan Ground Self-Defense Forces operate this air defense system based on a Type 73 truck with 6x6 configuration, while the Japan Air Self-Defense Forces operate the Type 11 based on a Kohkidohsha light utility vehicle with 4x4 configuration. Launcher vehicles of both versions carry 4 missiles each.

 

Launcher based on an updated Type 73 truck

 
Type 81 air defense missile system

Expand image

Type 81 air defense missile system

Expand image

Type 81 air defense missile system

Expand image

Type 81 air defense missile system

Expand image

Type 81 air defense missile system

Expand image

Type 81 air defense missile system

Expand image

Type 81 SAM-1B air defense system

Expand image

 

Personal appeal from Andrius Genys
Please Read

Top 10 Fighter Aircraft
Top 10 Fighter Aircraft

Top 10 Main Battle Tanks
Top 10 Main Battle Tanks

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Home  Home     Aircraft     Helicopters     Tanks     Armored Vehicles     Artillery     Trucks     Engineering Vehicles     Missiles     Naval Forces     Firearms     |     Contact Us
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

ARG 2006 - 2021
www.Military-Today.com