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Oka (SS-23 Spider)

Short-range ballistic missile

Oka (SS-23 Spider)

The SS-23 Spider had short service life as it was eliminated by the INF Treaty

 
 
Country of origin Soviet Union
Entered service 1980
Crew 3 men
Dimensions and weight
Weight (empty) 24.7 t
Length 11.76 m
Width 3.13 m
Height 3 m
Missile
Missile length 7.5 m
Missile diameter 0.9 m
Missile weight 4 500 - 5 000 kg
Warhead weight 455 - 715 kg
Warhead type conventional / nuclear
Range of fire 480 km
CEP 30 - 150 m
Mobility
Engine UTD-25 diesel
Engine power 400 hp
Maximum road speed 70 km/h
Amphibious speed on water 8 - 10 km/h
Range 700 km
Maneuverability
Gradient 60%
Side slope 30%
Vertical step ~ 0.6 m
Trench ~ 2 m
Fording Amphibious

 

   The Oka short-range ballistic missile system (Western designation SS-23 Spider) was named after the Oka river. It was developed by the Soviet Union in since the mid 70s and entered service in 1980. This missile system replaced the Elbrus (Western designation Scud-B). The Spider had short operational life in the Soviet Army service, as it was eliminated by the INF Treaty in the late 80s. The SS-23 was exported to the former East Germany, Bulgaria and former Czechoslovakia. All surviving launcher vehicles were scrapped by 2002. Currently Russia is adopting the new Iskander-M (NATO designation SS-26 Stone), which incorporates Oka's technology.

   The Oka was a single stage, solid fuel missile. It was essentially a longer version of the SS-21 Scarab. Maximum range of fire was up to 480 km, depending on the warhead type. Minimum range of fire was 50 km. The missile was fitted with HE-FRAG, cluster, chemical or nuclear (100 - 500 kT) warheads . The Oka had inertial and active radar terminal guidance, with a CEP of 30 - 150 m. Such accuracy was sufficient to engage moving targets. Missile was designed to overcome air defense systems.

  The main targets for this missile were airfields, command posts, air defense batteries, support facilities and other important point targets.

   In travelling position missile is hidden inside the TEL vehicle. In this position it is protected from both direct hits, environment and NBC threats. While travelling this missile was hard to intercept due to its speed and mobility. Vehicle was capable of rapid deployment. Missile was prepared for launch from travelling in less than 10 minutes, without leaving the cab. Also it could be launched remotely from the vehicle.

   The Oka missile was based on the BAZ-6944 amphibious high-mobility vehicle. It is powered by the a UTD-25 diesel engine, developing 400 hp. Vehicle is fully amphibious without preparation. On water it is propelled by two waterjets.

   The SS-23 Spider was supported by associated reloading vehicle, based on a similar 8x8 BAZ chassis.

 

Variants

 

   Oka-U, improved variant of the Spider, with improved accuracy. Development work on this missile stopped in 1987 due to the INF Treaty.

   Iskander (Western designation SS-26 Stone) is a Russian short-range ballistic missile, which incorporates Oka's technology. It can be seen as a successor to the Oka. It was adopted by the Russian Army in 2006. The launcher vehicle carries two missiles. Each of them can be launched at different targets. The missiles have a range of 400 km and can carry 480 kg of payload. It has a CEP of 5-7 m. Downgraded export version, the Iskander-E, has a range reduced to 280 km and simplified guidance system with a CEP reduced to 30-70 m. The Iskander launcher vehicle can also launch R-500 cruise missiles that reportedly have a range of 1 500 km.

 

Video of the SS-23 Spider short-range ballistic missile system

 

 
Oka (SS-23 Spider)

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Oka (SS-23 Spider)

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Oka (SS-23 Spider)

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Oka (SS-23 Spider)

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Oka (SS-23 Spider)

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Personal appeal from Andrius Genys

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