5.45 x 39 mm
Length (with folded stock)
Cyclic rate of fire
600 / 1 800 rpm
Practical rate of fire
40 - 100 rpm
1 000 m
Range of effective fire
650 - 700 m
assault rifle has been designed as a possible replacement for the
AK-74 by Genady Nikonov during the late
1980s and early 1990s. It was first publicly revealed in 1993. The
Nikonov's design eventually won the competition against other new
Russian assault rifles. The
Abakan had been officially adopted by the Russian Army and Ministry
of Internal Affairs in 1994. Originally it was intended to replace
most of the AK-74s in the Russian service, however currently it is
used only in limited numbers by elite forces, mainly because of the
funding problems. One interesting detail is that the AN-94 Abakan
has not been proposed for export customers
The AN-94 is
chambered for a standard Soviet 5.45 x 39 mm round. It is an
advanced gas operated assault rifle. Design of this assault rifle differs from the
AK design. An
unusual feature of this weapon is that the Abakan has 1 800 rpm and
600 rpm variable rate of fire modes. It is claimed, that the AN-94
is more accurate than the
though the 5.45-mm Russian round is inferior to the 5.56-mm standard
switch and fire mode selector are two separate controls. The safety
switch is mounted inside the trigerguard. The fire mode selector is
located above the triggerguard. It has three positions, including
single shots, two round bursts and full-auto.
improvement of the Abakan over the AK-74 is the additional two round
burst mode. This
mode offers some advantages over the usual single-shot mode. It is reported that a
two-round burs is very accurate. Some sources claim, that it is
possible to make a single hole in the target at 100 m range. Also
shooter feels the recoil of two fired rounds simultaneously only
afterwards both bullets have left the barrel. It allows for
significant increase in accuracy, lethality and penetration.
full-auto mode of the AN-94 Abakan consists of two stages. The first
two rounds are fired in the high rate mode (1 800 rpm) and then the
hammer unit switches itself to the low rate mode and the remaining
rounds are fired in the 600 rpm mode. There is no manual rate of
fire selector, as everything is done automatically. The process is
repeated every time when shooter pushes the trigger.
It is worth mentioning,
that the AN-94 has complicated internal design. It takes time to get
used to its assembly and this weapon is troublesome in maintenance.
It is also more expensive to
manufacture, than the previous AK-74. It is worth mentioning that
the Abakan employs modern manufacturing technologies, such as
casting, steel stamping, powder coating and laser welding, while the
Kalashnikov weapons are still produced by the methods of the 1950s.
Abakan is fed from the standard AK-74 box-type magazines, holding 30
rounds. It is also compatible with 45 round capacity magazines of
the RPK-74 light machine gun.
This assault rifle has a
polymer housing. A collapsible polymer stock is
folded to the right side. A field toolkit is carried inside the
buttstock. However it has been reported that the
Abakan has poor ergonomics.
has adjustable iron sights, comprised by a front post and a rear diopter. It is worth mentioning that such sight system
was used with Russian firearms for the first time and is a step
aside from all previous Russian assault rifles. It has much in
common with Heckler & Koch designs. A universal rail is
attached to the left side of the receiver. It is used to mount
various scopes and night vision sights.
has an unusual muzzle brake, which is self-cleaning. It also serves
as a flash hider and is claimed to be highly effective. This muzzle
brake can be removed from the rifle and replaced with the standard
muzzle brake of the AK-74.
This assault rifle has a
grenade launcher mount under the barrel and is compatible with 40-mm
GP-25 or GP-30 launchers. The bayonet is
attached in horizontal plane flat. This feature allows to mount both
grenade launcher and the bayonet simultaneously. Previously it was
impossible with the AK automatic weapons.