The fire support vehicles, are artillery systems, specially designed
to support infantry with their firepower. They provide direct fire
against hostile armored vehicles, buildings and field
fortifications. With some degree of success fire support vehicles
can even engage main battle tanks. That's why sometimes these military machines
are called tank destroyers.
fire support vehicles have a highly mobile 6x6 or 8x8 wheeled
chassis. These vehicles are relatively light and have high speed and
mobility on hard surface roads. Their armor
protection is limited. In combat these vehicles often exploit their
mobility for shoot-and-scoot type attacks in order to avoid enemy
Their main advantages over tanks are significantly
lower production and operational costs. Also higher level of strategic
and tactical mobility. So these can respond rapidly to various
threats. Main battle tanks require heavy equipment transporters to
relocate them if long distances are involved. So the fire support
comparable firepower to main battle tanks and in some cases can even
supplement them. However their mobility comes at a cost of limited armor
So which is the best fire
support vehicle in the world? Which is the most
capable and effective fire support vehicle? This Top 10 analysis
is based on firepower, protection, mobility, and some other factors.
This list includes fire
support vehicles, that are currently in
service, or will
enter service in the near future.
top 10 fire support vehicles in the world are these:
Centauro 2 (Italy)
Centauro 2 is a new Italian fire support vehicle. It is a
next-generation version of the previous
Centauro with a 120 mm gun. This combat vehicle was jointly
developed by IVECO and OTO Melara to meet an Italian Army
requirement. Development commenced in 2010. The first prototype was
ready in 2015. It was first publicly revealed in 2016. Italian Army
plans to obtain 74 of these new fire support vehicles to replace
some of its
Centauro B1 vehicles in medium brigades.
2 is intended to carry out tactical reconnaissance, fire support of
combat units and territorial defense tasks. It can escort convoys
and be used for road patrol missions. Once in service with Italian
Army the Centrauro 2 will operate in medium brigades alongside
infantry fighting vehicles, and associated combat vehicles based on
similat 8x8 wheeled chassis.
support vehicle is currently the most capable in this class. Most
other vehicles are limited by their 6x6 chassis, or carry smaller
105 mm guns. Furthermore this vehicle has an 8x8 chassis, that was
purpose-designed to withstand recoil of the powerful 120 mm gun.
Most other fire support vehicles use ordinary armored personnel
carrier chassis, that are not well suited for this role. Currently
there are only few other fire support vehicles, armed with a
powerful 120 mm gun. Most of them are demonstrators.
support vehicle is armed with a more powerful 120 mm high-pressure
gun. It is compatible with all standard NATO 120 mm tank ammunition.
The gun is fed by an automatic loading system.
support vehicle uses APFSDS, multi-role, and other munitions.
The 120 mm APFSDS round penetrates 600 mm of rolled homogenous steel armor
at a range of 3 000 m.
support vehicle has got a modern fire control system and the latest
generation optics. It has a hunter-killer engagement capability. The
commander uses a panoramic sight to search for targets. Once the
target is selected the gun is laid on the target automatically and
the gunner completes al the aiming and firing process. During that
time commander looks for the next target. Such hunter-killer
engagement method is present on all modern main battle tanks. It
allows to acquire and engage targets faster.
2 comes with add-on composite armor. Its front arc provides
protection against 40 mm armor-piercing rounds, while all-round
protection is against 14.5 mm rounds and artillery shell splinters.
Chassis has a number of design features, that improve protection
against mine blasts and improvised explosive devices.
2 is operated by a crew of 4, including commander, gunner, driver
and loader. The loader transfers ammunition form stowage compartment
to the autoloader, and loads the main gun manually in case the
support vehicle is powered by IVECO turbocharged diesel engine, developing 720 hp. Engine is located at the
front. It is mated to an automatic transmission. Steering is provided on
the first and second axles and at slow speed with also the fourth
axle. Vehicle is equipped with run-flat tyres and fitted with
central tyre inflation system
Centauro with a 120 mm gun
Centauro with a 120 mm gun is an upgunned version of the original
Centauro B1. It seems that it first appeared in 2004. At the
time of its introduction it was the first vehicle of its class with
such a powerful armament. This relatively light vehicle had a
firepower of a modern main battle tank. Other fire support vehicles
with 120 mm guns were only technology demonstrators, rather. Yet the
Centauro with a 120 mm gun was ready for production and awaiting
orders from possible customers. This fire support vehicle is
reportedly in service with Oman. Some sources report that a total of
9 vehicles were obtained from Italy with an option for 24 more.
support vehicle is fitted with an OTO Melara HITFACT turret, armed with a
120 mm/L45 smoothbore gun. The main gun is unrelated to Rheinmetall
120 mm gun, which is used on most current Western tanks. The same
gun is also used on the new
Centauro 2. It is compatible with all standard 120 mm
ammunition. It is fitted with a very efficient muzzle brake, which
significantly reduces the recoil.
support vehicle fires APFSDS, multi-role, and other types of
ammunition. The 120 mm APFSDS round penetrates 600 mm of rolled homogenous steel armor at a
range of 3 000 m.
The gun is
loaded manually. Ammunition is stored in isolated compartments,
separated by ballistic and anti-explosion wall. Around 40 rounds are
carried by the vehicle. Around 12 of them are stored in the turret
and are ready to use. Other are stored in the manual rack. When this
vehicle was introduced, automatic loading system was under
support vehicle has got a modern fire control system. It has a
hunter-killer engagement capability.
armament consists of a coaxial 7.62 mm machine gun. Also there are
roof-mounted 12.7 mm and 7.62 mm machine guns.
with a 120 mm gun has a higher level of protection than the baseline
Centauro with a 105 mm gun. Vehicle has a welded steel armor hull
and aluminum armor turret. Also there is an add-on composite armor.
Its front arc provides protection against 40 mm armor-piercing
rounds. All-round protection is against 14.5 mm rounds.
support vehicle has a crew of four, including commander, gunner,
driver and loader.
with a 120 mm gun was some sort of interim vehicle until the
Centauro 2 was developed. It seems that this vehicle was used as
technology test bed to spot possible problems related to mounting a
powerful 120 mm gun. As a result the Centauro 2 has a number of modifications done to the chassis
in order to withstand the violent recoil force.
Combat Vehicle (Japan)
Maneuver Combat Vehicle (MCV) was designed by Japan's state-owned
Technical Research and Development Institute. Development commenced
in 2008. This fire support vehicle was first publicly revealed in
2013. Official sources claim that the MCV will be produced by
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and deployed in 2016. It is planned that
some 200-300 of these vehicles will be built for the Japan's army.
These will replace ageing main battle tanks. By acquiring wheeled
fire support vehicle Japan plans to reduce
the number of main battle tanks from 740 to only 300 units within
the few years.
The Japanese MCV is armed with a 105 mm rifled gun. It is compatible with
all standard NATO 105 mm ammunition. For some reason this gun lacks
automatic loader and is loaded manually. Around 40 rounds are
carried for the main gun. Around 15 rounds are stored in the turret
bustle and are ready to use.
The MCV is
fitted with a modern fire control system with the latest generation
optics. This vehicle has a hunter-killer engagement capability.
armament consists of a coaxial 7.62 mm machine gun and a roof-mounted 12.7 mm machine
support vehicle is relatively light. It is likely to have a steel
armor hull. Also there is modular add-on composite armor. It seems
that the front arc withstands hits form 35 mm or even 40 mm guns. Maximum level of
all-round protection is likely to be against 14.5 mm armor-piercing
rounds and artillery shell splinters. Damaged add-on armor modules
can be easily replaced in field conditions.
Combat Vehicle has a crew of four, including commander, gunner,
loader and driver.
support vehicle uses an entirely new 8x8 chassis. It is not based on
any existing armored personnel carrier. It seems that it was
specially designed to withstand the violent recoil of the main gun.
A number of other fire support vehicle are simply created by merging
an existing armored personnel carrier chassis with a gun turret.
However such designs usually have various problems with excessive
recoil, that the armored personnel carrier chassis was never
The MCV is powered by
unspecified turbocharged diesel engine, developing 570 hp. Powerpack
is located at the front of the hull. It is claimed that operational
range on roads without refueling is only 400 km. Vehicle is fitted
with a central tyre inflation system. Tyre pressure can be adjusted
to increase mobility over various off-road terrain.
can be airlifted. Unlike main battle tanks the MCVs can be easily transported by
tactical cargo aircraft. In case of emergency Japan plans to quickly
airlift numerous Maneuver Combat Vehicles to remote islands where these are needed.
Centauro, or Centauro B1, was the first truly successful fire
support vehicle with an 8x8 configuration and 105 mm main gun. At
the time of its introduction it was officially referred as a tank
destroyer and had the firepower comparable to that of the
main battle tank, which was then in service with Italy. The Centauro
was adopted by the Italian Army in 1991. By 1996 a total of 400 of
these vehicles were delivered to the Italian Army and 300 vehicles
are operational to this day. Export operators are Spain which ordered 84
vehicles, and Jordan which received 25 retired Centauro's as a gift
from Italy. Also from 2000 to 2002 the US Army
leased 16 Centauros. These were assigned to form the first crews for
Stryker Mobile Gun Systems and to acquire more
experience with wheeled armored fire support vehicles. The Centauro
proved itself well during numerous peacekeeping operations.
vehicle has got such high position on this list because unlike most
never vehicles it uses a specially-designed 8x8 chassis. Most newer
fire support vehicle might have newer optics, more advanced fire
control systems, or integrated battlefield management systems.
However they are based on standard production armored personnel
carrier chassis, that have numerous problems and limitations related
to violent recoil of their main guns. Also the Centauro offers a
higher level of protection even comparing with the latest fire
is armed with a fully-stabilized 105 mm high-velocity rifled gun,
developed by OTO Melara. It is compatible with all standard NATO 105
mm ammunition. It has an effective range of 3 000 meters. The gun
has a very effective muzzle brake, which reduces recoil force by
about 40%. This allowed this gun to be used on a wheeled chassis.
The gun is loaded manually. A total of 40 rounds for the main gun
are carried inside the vehicle; 14 of them are carried in the turret
and are ready to use, while the rest are stored in the hull.
system of the Centauro is similar to that of the
Ariete main battle tank.
It has got a hunter-killer engagement capability. This tank
destroyer can engage a target 25-35 seconds after spotting it.
armament consists of two 7.62 mm machine guns. One of them is
coaxially mounted with the main gun and the other is located on top
of the turret roof.
destroyer has a welded hull and turret. In standard configuration
front arc of the Centauro is protected against 20 mm rounds. All
round protection is against 12.7 mm rounds and artillery shell
fragments. Up to three tons of add-on passive or explosive reactive
armor can be fitted. During their operational service some vehicles
were fitted with add-on armor plates at the rear of the hull in
order to increase their protection. It seems that these were the vehicles that took part in various international operation.
a crew of four, including commander, gunner, driver and loader.
tank destroyer is powered by IVECO turbocharged diesel engine,
developing 520 horsepower. Engine is located at the front. It seems
that it is mated to an automatic gearbox. Steering is provided on the first and
second axles and at slow speed with also the fourth axle. Vehicle is equipped with run-flat tyres and fitted with
central tyre inflation system. As most vehicles in this class the Centauro is not amphibious.
Pandur 2 fire support vehicle is a member of the whole armored
vehicle family, which includes various wheeled armored vehicles with
6x6 and 8x8 configurations. This whole family of vehicles was
developed by Steyr-Daimler-Puch as a private venture.
support vehicle was developed with a choice of two turret variants.
One of them was armed with a CMI Defence CT-CV turret, while the
other was fitted with OTO Melara HITFACT turret (the same as used on
Centauro B1). Both of these versions were armed with a 105 mm
gun. Portuguese Army ordered 30 vehicles fitted with the
CT-CV turret, however eventually the acquisition program was
due to funding problems. Another version
of the Pandur 2 with the HITFACT turret received no production orders.
Defence CT-CV 105 mm weapon system has a two-man turret and a
low-recoil fully-stabilized 105 mm/L53 gun. This system is
compatible with a full range of standard NATO 105 mm ammunition. It
is also compatible with smart ammunition and is able to fire guided
missiles, that are launched in the same manner as ordinary
projectiles. The gun is equipped with an automatic loader. Crew and
ammunition compartments are separated. Maximum rate of fire is 8
rpm. The gun can be elevated to 42°. This feature allows to adapt
vehicle to mountainous warfare. This variant can be recognized by
its rounded muzzle brake.
got a modern fire control system with hunter-killer engagement
There is a
single coaxial 7.62 mm machine gun.
of this fire support vehicle is rather limited. All-round protection
is against 7.62 mm armor-piercing rounds and artillery shell
shrapnel. Optional add-on armor provides protection against 14.5 mm
armor-piercing rounds. Spall liners, improved mine protection, NBC
protection system and automatic fire suppression system were all
offered as options. So this vehicle is extremely vulnerable.
support weapon is operated by a crew of four, including commander,
gunner, loader and driver.
powered by a Cummins ICS 350 diesel engine, developing 285 hp. The
Pandur II FSV is also available with a 400 hp diesel. The whole
Powerpack can be removed and replaced in field conditions within 30
is a Chinese fire support vehicle. Sometimes it is referred as
PTL-09. It seems that it entered service with the People Liberation
Army in 2009, hence its designation. This fire support vehicle is
currently in production. It seems that it is fielded in large
is based on the
wheeled 8x8 armored personnel carrier chassis and is fielded
alongside similar vehicles. Currently China builds rapid deployment
units, similar to American Stryker Brigade combat teams. Each unit
consists of various armored vehicles with different battlefield
roles. All variants are based on the same platform of the ZBL-09
armored personnel carrier. The ZTL-09 supplements the previous
fire support vehicle, based on the 6x6 APC chassis. However the ZTL-09
is overall a more capable vehicle, fitted with a more powerful gun.
this fire support vehicle resembles that of the
ZBD-2000 amphibious light tank. The
ZTL-09 is armed with a 105 mm gun. The gun is loaded manually. It
has an effective range of over 2 000 m against armored targets.
It is speculated,
that its HEAT round penetrates between 460 and 500 mm of rolled
armor. This vehicle also fires APFSDS, HE rounds. Furthermore
the ZTL-09 is also
compatible with anti-tank guided missiles. These laser-guided
missiles are launched in the same manner as ordinary projectiles.
Anti-tank missiles are based on the Russian
9M117 Bastion technology.
Missiles have a maximum range of 5 000 m and penetrate 550-600 mm of
steel armor behind Explosive Reactive Armor (ERA) blocks. Hit
probability against static targets is 90%. Missiles can also target
claimed that the ZTL-09 is fitted with modern and accurate fire
control system. However it lacks a commander's panoramic sight. So
it has got no hunter-killer capability, that is present on most
modern vehicles of this class. Still though this fire support vehicle is fitted with digital
battlefield management system, that is also present on all recent
Chinese armored vehicles. Such system increases situational
awareness and improves cooperation between various units on the
armament consists of coaxial 7.62 mm machine gun and roof-mounted
12.7 mm machine gun.
has a welded steel armor hull with add-on ceramic armor modules.
Chinese sources claim that maximum level of protection is against 25 mm
armor-piercing rounds at the front and 12.7 mm armor-piercing rounds
all-round. It is
speculated that vehicle utilizes design elements and technologies
protecting occupants from landmines and IED blasts. Vehicle is also
likely to have NBC protection and automatic fire suppression
has a crew of four, including commander, gunner, loader and driver.
support vehicle is based on the ZBL-09 wheeled armored personnel
carrier. However significant changes have been made to the chassis.
Engine was relocated. On the ZBL-09 it was mounted at the front. On
the ZTL-09 it is just behind the turret. It is possible that the new
fire support vehicle uses the same engine as on the APC. In this
case it is a
Deutz BF6M1015C diesel engine, developing 440 hp. It is a German
engine, produced in China under license. Engine is mated to an
Vehicle is fitted with a central tyre inflation system. This system improves mobility over difficult terrain.
The ZTL-09 is fully amphibious.
It is an unusual feature for this class of vehicles. Most other fire
support vehicles can not cross lakes and rivers on their own. On water
this vehicle is propelled by two waterjets.
Stryker Mobile Gun System (MGS) is one of 10 variants of the
series of wheeled armored vehicles. It was specially designed for
low-intensity combats. Deliveries of first pre-production vehicles
commenced in 2002. This fire support vehicle entered service with
the US Army in 2007. However only relatively small number of these
vehicles were built.
Mobile Gun System is fitted with a General Dynamics Land Systems
(formerly Teledyne Vehicle Systems) Low-Profile Turret. The same
turret was previously used on the
Expeditionary Tank. This fire support vehicle is armed with a
M68A1E4 105 mm rifled tank gun. It is a modified version of the tank
gun, used on the
M1 Abrams and
series main battle tanks. This gun is fitted
with an autoloader. Original autoloader had jamming problems, so in 2005
it was redesigned. The gun is fully-stabilized, so the vehicle can fire accurately
while on the move. The Mobile Gun System fires high-explosive,
anti-tank and canister rounds. Only 18 rounds for the main gun are
carried by the vehicle. Overall there are a number of problems with
this vehicle, related to its turret.
armament consists of 12.7 mm and 7.62 mm machine guns.
Armor of the
Mobile Gun System protects against small arms fire and artillery
shell splinters. Interior is lined with Kevlar spall liner. Vehicle can
be fitted with add-on composite armor, which provides protection against
14.5 mm projectiles, and add-on slat armor, which protects against
MGS is fitted with NBC protection and automatic fire suppression
support vehicle has
a crew of three, including commander, gunner and driver.
MGS uses a Stryker 8x8 armored personnel
carrier chassis. Vehicle is powered by Caterpillar 3126 diesel
engine, developing 350 horsepower. Engine and transmission of the
MGS can be removed and reinstalled in less than an hour. Vehicle is
not amphibious. The M1128 can
be airlifted by
C-130 Hercules and larger transport aircraft. The
MGS disembarks from the C-130 in combat-ready status.
AMX-10RC Renove, or AMX-10RCR, is a French reconnaissance and fire support vehicle. It is
an upgraded version of the
AMX-10RC, that was adopted by the French
Army in 1979. A total of 284 original AMX-10RC vehicles were
delivered to the French Army. Between 2005 and 2010 a total of 256
vehicles were upgraded to the AMX-10RCR standard in order to keep
them operational until 2015-2020. In the near future the AMX-10RCR
vehicles are due to be replaced by a new armored reconnaissance and
includes add-on armor kit for a higher level of protection, Galix
self-protection system and LIRE infrared jamming system.
Upgraded AMX-10RCR tank destroyers are also fitted with a
battlefield management information system, and identification friend
or foe system. Automotive system upgrades include new automatic
transmission and new suspension control system. However upgraded
lost their amphibious capability.
The AMX-10RCR has seen
service during various military conflicts. The main
role of this vehicle is reconnaissance and fire support of friendly
units. It can also escort convoys, patrol, and perform territorial
defense tasks. The AMX-10RCR can engage armored vehicles, buildings,
field fortifications and other targets. The original AMX-10RC was
even called a tank destroyer. However this vehicle is not normally
used to engage tanks. Even though it can penetrate front armor of
the older tanks, such as
modern main battle tanks would be a tough nut for this vehicle.
armed with a GIAT F2 105 mm rifled gun. It fires APFSDS, HE, HEAT and
smoke rounds. The range of effective fire is over 2 000 meters. A
total of 38 rounds are carried for the gun.
has two 7.62 mm machine guns. One of them is mounted coaxially with
the main gun, and another is mounted on top of the roof.
open fire just after 10 seconds when the target is spotted. Vehicle
has a high first-round-hit rate. However it can fire the main gun
accurately only when stationary, as the gun is not stabilized.
Vehicle has got a panoramic commanders sight. It seems that it
provides this vehicle a hunter-killer engagement capability, which
is present on most modern main battle tanks and fire support
vehicles. Upgraded AMX-10RCR fire support vehicles are also fitted with a
battlefield management information system, and identification friend
or foe system.
turret are of welded aluminum armor construction. Upgraded vehicles
were fitted with add-on armor kit for a higher level of protection.
Vehicle withstands hits from medium-caliber weapons and artillery
shell splinters. Cage armor can be fitted for protection against
anti-tank rockets, such as RPGs. Upgraded AMX-10RCR vehicles were
also fitted with Galix self-protection system and LIRE infrared
jamming system. Vehicle also has an NBC protection system.
operated by a crew of four, including commander, gunner, loader and
support vehicle is based on a purpose-designed 6x6 wheeled chassis.
It uses a number of automotive components of the
infantry fighting vehicle. Automotive system upgrades include new
automatic transmission instead of the manual one. It is possible
that the old 280 horsepower engine was also replaced by a modern
unit. Vehicle has a hydropneumatic suspension with adjustable ground
clearance. The ground clearance can be adjusted from 0.6 to 0.2 m.
Furthermore the vehicle can "sit", "stand", "kneel" or "lean" in any
direction. Upgraded AMX-10RCRs have a new suspension control system.
Vehicle is also fitted with a central tyre pressure system, which
improves mobility over difficult terrain. Vehicle can continue to
move when one or two tyres are totally destroyed. However upgraded
vehicles lost their amphibious capability. The rear sprinkler and
front breakwater were removed.
is a Chinese fire support vehicle. It is a modified export version of the
which is widely used by the Chinese army. The WMA301 can be
identified by a wedge-shaped turret. It is in service with Cameroon,
Chad, Djibouti, Myanmar, Senegal, and possibly some other countries.
This vehicle saw action during various military conflicts.
WMA301 is based on existing technologies, thus maximally reducing
its development and production costs. It uses chassis of the
armored personnel carrier and most of the parts are interchangeable.
It is armed with a 105 mm rifled gun, which is compatible with all
standard NATO ammunition. It is worth noting that the original
Chinese PTL02 fire support vehicle has a smaller 100 mm gun.
fires APFSDS, HEAT and HE rounds. It can also launch 105 mm
anti-tank guided missiles in the same manner as ordinary munitions.
These extend the effective range to up to 5 km.
Vehicle carries around 30 rounds for the main gun.
and observation systems of the WMA301 are rather simple. It lacks
hunter-killer capability, which is present on most modern fire
armament consists of a coaxial 7.62 mm machine gun, and roof-mounted
12.7 mm machine gun.
before, this vehicle is not that effective against modern main
battle tanks. However this gun penetrates front armor of the tanks
some other, that are widespread in Africa and Southeast Asia - in
the regions where these fire support vehicles are deployed.
a welded steel armor hull and turret. All-round protection is from
12.7 mm machine gun fire. Also it seems that vehicle is fitted with
an NBC protection system and automatic fire suppression equipment.
that this fire support vehicle has a crew of five.
the WMA301 is almost identical to the Type 92 armored vehicles and
most of the parts are interchangeable. Vehicle is powered by the Deutz
BF8L413F turbocharged diesel engine, developing 320 horsepower.
Engine is located in the middle. It is mated to a manual gearbox
with 9-forward and 1-reverse gears. Two front pairs of wheels are
steerable. Vehicle is fitted with a central tyre pressure regulation
system, which improved mobility over difficult terrain, such as
sand, snow or mud. It looks like amphibious capability is proposed
as an option.
or Type 02,
is a Chinese fire support vehicle. It is based on the
wheeled armored vehicle and is fielded alongside similar 6x6 armored
vehicles. The main goal was to create a low cost but highly mobile
fire support vehicle. This fire support vehicle is based on existing
technologies, thus maximally reducing development costs. The PTL02
was first introduced in 2002-2003. Its production for the Chinese
army began in 2004-2005. Currently it is widely used by the Chinese
Vehicle has a welded
steel armor hull. It provides all-round protection from 12.7 mm
machine gun fire. It is also fitted with an NBC protection system
and automatic fire suppression equipment.
The PTL02 is armed
with a 100 mm high-pressure smoothbore gun, developed from the Type
86 towed anti-tank gun. It fires APFSDS, HEAT and HE rounds. Vehicle
carries 30 rounds for the main gun. This gun can engage lightly
armored vehicles, however is not that effective against modern main
Fire control and
observation systems of the PTL02 were developed from the Type 88
main battle tank and are rather simple.
consists of coaxial 7.62 mm machine gun and 12.7 mm anti-aircraft
machine gun, mounted on top of commander's cupola.
Vehicle is operated by
a crew of five.
Chassis of the PTL02
is almost identical to the Type 92 armored vehicles and most of the
parts are interchangeable. Vehicle is powered by the Deutz BF8L413F
turbocharged diesel engine, developing 320 horsepower. Engine is
located in the middle. It is mated to a manual gearbox with
9-forward and 1-reverse gears. Vehicle is fitted with a central tyre
pressure regulation system. This tank destroyer lacks waterjets and
is presumably not amphibious, unless fitted with special floatation
The PTL02 is typically
used alongside similar vehicles with 6x6 configuration. It can be
rapidly deployed using road network. The PTL02 can be also
airlifted. A Chinese
tactical transport aircraft can carry two such vehicles, while the
can carry three.