Home > Artillery > BM-21 Grad

BM-21 Grad

Multiple launch rocket system

BM-21 Grad

The BM-21 Grad is the world's most widely used multiple launch rocket system

Entered service 1963
Crew 6 men
Dimensions and weight
Weight 13.7 t
Length 7.35 m
Width 2.4 m
Height 3.09 m
Caliber 122-mm
Number of tubes 40
Rocket weight 66.6 kg
Warhead weight 18.4 kg
Firing range 1.6 - 21 km
Full salvo duration 20 s
Reloading time 7 minutes
Engine ZIL-375 petrol
Engine power 180 hp
Maximum road speed 75 km/h
Range 750 km
Gradient 60%
Side slope 40%
Vertical step up to 0.6 m
Trench ~ 0.6 m
Fording 1.5 m


   The BM-21 Grad (hail) multiple launch rocket system entered service with the Soviet Army in 1963. It was produced for a long period of time in large quantity both for the Soviet Army and for export customers. Currently the BM-21 Grad is in service with more than 30 countries. It is the most widely used artillery rocket system in the world. There are numerous variants, copies and modifications of this vehicle.

   The BM-21 Grad has 40 launching tubes for 122-mm rockets. The standard rocket with a HE-FRAG warhead is 2.87 m long and weights 66.6 kg. Warhead itself weights 18.4 kg. It also fires rockets fitted with incendiary, chemical, smoke, illumination or cluster warheads. Cluster warheads contain anti-tank or anti-personnel submunitions. A number of specialized warheads were developed for this vehicle. A full salvo of the BM-21 Grad covers area of 0.8 -1 hectares.

   Vehicle is prepared to fire in three minutes. The BM-21 can launch rockets directly from the cab or remotely from the vehicle. It is possible to launch rockets without preparing the firing position. This feature ensures brief reaction time. The Grad can be packed up and ready to move in two minutes.

   The BM-21 is based on the Ural-375D 6x6 high mobility truck. Vehicle is powered by the ZiL-375 petrol or diesel engine, developing 180 horsepower. Later Grads were mounted on newer Ural-4320 and ZiL-131 trucks. A launcher pack can be mounted on any other acceptable chassis type.

   The BM-21 is reloaded manually. Reload rockets are carried in escorting utility truck. It takes less than 10 minutes to reload the launching vehicle.


Russian variants of the BM-21 Grad


   BM-21V Grad-V, airborne variant of the Grad, fitted with 12 launching tubes. It is mounted on a GAZ-66B 4x4 truck;

   Grad-1, lighter version of the Grad, fitted with 36 launching tubes. It is mounted on the ZiL-131 6x6 truck chassis. This artillery system is compatible only with the shorter-range rockets;

   9K132 Grad-P, portable single-tube launcher;

   A-215 Grad-M, naval multiple launch rocket system, fitted on amphibious assault ships;

   BM-21PD Damba, costal MLRS intended to protect sea bases against underwater infiltrations;

   BM-21-1 improved variant of the Grad, mounted on Ural-43201 general utility truck. It is fitted with a satellite navigation system, automated fire control and laying systems. This artillery system can fire a new generation of rockets with a maximum range of 40 km;

   9K59 Prima, improved variant of the Grad with 50 launching tubes;

   Grad-K a new version of the Grad, mounted on the 6x6 KamAZ-5350 general utility truck. It was revealed in 2011. Currently this version is in a small scale production;

   Tornado-G, updated version of the Grad. First production systems were delivered to the Russian Army in 2012. The launcher vehicle is based on Ural-4320 army truck. This artillery rocket system fires newly developed missiles with extended range and more lethal warheads.


   Updated information was sent us by SERGEI V. GUROV

   Thank you Sergei!

    Send us your own articles. Please visit guidelines for writers for more information.


Video of the Grad multiple launch rocket system

BM-21 Grad

BM-21 Grad

BM-21 Grad

BM-21 Grad

BM-21 Grad

Home  Home     Aircraft     Helicopters     Tanks     Armored Vehicles     Artillery     Trucks     Engineering Vehicles     Missiles     Naval Forces     Firearms     |     Contact Us

ARG 2006 - 2017
www.Military-Today.com BM-21 Grad