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2S6 Tunguska

30-mm self-propelled anti-aircraft gun/missile system

2S6M Tunguska-M

The 2S6 Tunguska is a low-level air defense gun/missile system

Entered service 1982
Crew 4 men
Dimensions and weight
Weight 34.8 t
Length 7.93 m
Width 3.24 m
Height (in combat order) 4.02 m
Main gun 4 x 30-mm
Missiles 8 x 9M311
Projectile weight 0.39 kg
Maximum slant range (guns) 3 km
Maximum firing range (guns) 4 km
Maximum slant range (missiles) 3.5 km
Maximum firing range (missiles) 8 km
Rate of fire 5 000 rpm
Elevation range - 9 to + 85 degrees
Traverse range 360 degrees
Ammunition load
Main gun 1904 rounds
Missiles 8 missiles
Engine V-46 diesel
Engine power 780 hp
Maximum road speed 65 km/h
Range 580 km
Gradient 60%
Side slope 30%
Vertical step 1 m
Trench 2 m
Fording 1 m


   The 2S6 Tunguska (NATO designation SA-19 Grison) was developed to replace the ZSU-23-4 Shilka self-propelled anti-aircraft gun and 9K31 Strela-1 and Strela-1M2 mobile surface-to-air missile systems. It is worth mentioning that the ZSU-23-4 had no early warning and struggled to counter new ground attack aircraft, such as the A-10 Thunderbolt II, designed to have resistance to 23-mm cannon rounds. Soviet analysis indicated, that 30-mm ammunition would be much more lethal. The Tunguska (also referred as the 2K22) is a low-level air defense gun/missile system. Its development began in mid 70s and first prototypes were completed in 1980. Some sources claim, that its design was heavily influenced by the German Gepard SPAAG. Vehicle was accepted to service with the Soviet Army and deliveries commenced in 1982. The 2S6 Tunguska and its variants are currently in service with Russia, Belarus, India, Morocco and Ukraine.

   The 2S6 Tunguska is armed with twin 30-mm guns on each side and eight 9M331 missiles. These guns are derivatives of aircraft cannons. Combined rate of fire for the 30-mm guns is 5 000 rounds per minute. These guns use HE-T and HE-I rounds and have a service life of at least 8 000 rounds. It is claimed that hit probability with guns is 80%. The 9M331 missiles have a hit probability of 65%. Missiles have a blast fragmentation warhead and proximity fuses, triggered near the target.  Missiles can engage targets traveling at speeds up to 500 m/s. The Tunguska is able to fire its guns on the move, however it must be stationary to fire missiles.

   Radar detection range of the 2S6 Tunguska is 17 km and tracking range is 11-16 km. It is worth mentioning, that since its introduction no less than four different variants of search radars were used. Guidance is performed by the gunner who uses optical sight. Reaction time of the vehicle is 10 seconds.

   Armor of the 2S6 Tunguska protects the crew against small arms fire and artillery shell splinters. Vehicle is fitted with automatic fire suppression and NBC protection systems.

   Vehicle has a crew of four, including commander, gunner, operator and driver.

   The 2S6 Tunguska is powered by a version of the V-46 diesel. It is a multi-fuel engine, developing 780 hp. Vehicle has a hydropneumatic suspension with adjustable ground clearance. It is fitted with auxiliary gas turbine power unit, which powers all systems when the main engine is shut down.

   Battery of Tunguskas includes six 2S6 vehicles, six reloading vehicles, and five various technical assistance vehicles, including repair and maintenance vehicles, mobile workshop and missile test vehicles. A battery of Tunguskas can automatically receive fire control information from Ranzhir mobile command center.




   2S6M Tunguska-M, improved variant developed in 1990;

   2S6M1 Tunguska-M1 has improved fire control system and uses new 9M311-1M missiles. These missiles have a range of 10 km and can engage small targets, such as cruise missiles. Missiles have improved optical tracking and accuracy. The Tunguska-M1 is much more effective than the Tunguska-M. All vehicles can be upgraded to this standard. The 2S6M1 entered service with the Russian Army in 2003.

   Pantsyr-S1 is a further development of Tunguska, based on an 8x8 cross-country truck.



Video of the 2S6 Tunguska air defense gun/missile system

2S6 Tunguska

2S6 Tunguska

2S6M1 Tunguska-M1

2S6M Tunguska-M

2S6M Tunguska-M

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